Concentration of Small Hawking Type Surfaces

Autoren: Alexander Friedrich (2019)

We investigate the Hawking energy of small surfaces in space times without symmetry assumptions by introducing the notion of Hawking type functionals. In particular, we find that Hawking type functionals are generalized Willmore functionals which allows us to find area constrained, minimizing, immersed, haunted bubble trees. These bubble trees are smooth spheres provided their area is small enough. Following a similar analysis of the Willmore functional conducted by T. Lamm and J. Metzger we characterize the concentration points of area constrained, critical surfaces for Hawking type functionals and the Hawking energy. Moreover, we determine their expansion on small surfaces.

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